Contents & Index

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(The Index of links, images, & technique videos is beneath this section. To go straight there.)


Theory chapters

The background of the author

 Why I began studying the appearance of the feet. The history of foot reading so far.  Comparing pairs of feet

The biological and physiological reasons why the health can be read on the surface of the feet

How to do a visual assessment of a client’s feet. What to look out for and how to record it.

How to take photos of the feet for your records.

How the physical, mental and spiritual energies can be read on the feet. And how they all replicate and complement each other.

An overview of the following three chapters

Balancing the body, Connecting with clients, Clients with communication difficulties, Beyond the medical history, An aid to palpation, Working systemically, Working with colour.

A guide to techniques, Structuring a treatment, An overview of the whole person, Right-Left balance, Reading the 10 zones, The importance of the dorsal aspect.

Seeing the feet as a 3D microcosm of the body, Rethinking charts, For record keeping. Engaging with a client’s energy, The future of foot reading.

Suggested guidelines for including foot reading within the context of your reflexology treatments without transgressing professional boundaries. 


Practical Chapters

What can be read about the client from the alignment of the feet at their initial presentation.

What the shape and structure of the feet tells us about the health and functioning of the musculoskeletal system in the body.

Reading the musculoskeletal health of the shoulder girdle, neck, and head on the metatarsal joints and toes

Reading the musculoskeletal health of all the toes in unison, and on the four smaller toes separately. 

Many different types of lines are visible on the feet. What their length, depth, angle, and positioning tell us about various forms of stress in the body.

What the underlying colour tones in the feet tell us about circulation, toxicity, oxygenation and inflammation at the reflexes.

What the different textures of the epidermis layer of the skin tell us about the client’s hydration, nutrition, toxicity and lymph flow 

How the underlying texture beneath the epidermis tells us about the health of the cells, whether swollen or sunken.

What freckles and moles tell us about the reflexes on which they are sited in terms of nerve disturbances and also hereditary weaknesses. .

How broken veins and swollen veins indicate problems with the cardiovascular system, both generally and in specific areas of the body.

What the appearance of the nails tells us about both the health of the client from the perspective of orthodox medicine and the reflexes.

How to read the difference between the left and the right foot and what this tells us about the health and mental wellbeing of the client

What physical reactions such as cramping and twitching tell you, and how to read body language and the language of the feet.

more chapters to follow: fertility & pregnancy, chinese meridians, technique videos, foot assessments, other ways of foot reading.

index of links, videos, images & guides

(images listed are those other than the photos used to illustrate how to foot read)

external links: 

i.  The visual reflexology study group on Facebook

ii. Louise Hay’s interpretation of the emotional        significance of physical ailments

iii. The emotional connections of the chakras

iv. Facial reflexology


i.  Hand as map. 

ii. Photo comparison of multiple pairs of feet.




no videos


external links: 

i.  The biology of the cells in the feet

ii. Geraldine Villeneuve (structural reflexology)

iii. Cellular memory

iv. The brain in the gut

images & guides:

Quick test: male ankles and fertility

no videos



no external links:



images & guides: 

i. First treatment record sheet including visual record

ii.  How to position your client correctly before reading their feet

iii. Specific things to look out for on the feet – Guide



i. Yvonne Owen’s video of foot trembling during energetic connection to adrenal gland.



no external links

images & guides: 

i.  Victorian photo of plaster cast of shoe and non shoe wearing feet

ii.  Photo of multiple different feet


no videos


external links: 

i. Introductory courses on counselling

ii. Relational reflexology blog on combining reflexology with counselling

iii. The foot chakra


no images 





i. Jane Sheehan reading the personality on the feet.

ii. Guided meditation on the foot chakra


no external links


no images



no videos


no external links: 



images & guides: 

i. List of reasons why clients don’t give us a full and accurate picture of their health.


i. Functional Reflexology for clients with leaning or communication difficulties.

ii. Reflex Lymph Drainage video


external links: 

i. Precision reflexology (linking)

ii. Finger Free Reflexology (for working deeply into the muscles)

iii. A.R.T. (for spinal nerve points)

images & guides: 

i. Diaphragm rocking

ii. ‘What every BODY is Saying’ book




i. Vertical Reflex Therapy

ii. Vagus nerve (Touchpoint)



external links: 

i. 3D computer imaging of the human body

ii.Wikipedia on MRI

iii. Balancing Touch Charts

iv. Chinese handreading

v. Dermatoglyphic Multiple Intelligence Test

vi. Longer second toe (Morton’s Toe)

vii. Longer second toe & vitamin B deficiency

images & guides: 

i. Balancing Touch reflex charts of the systems in the body 

ii. X-ray of colon

iii. Eye leading the brain

iv. Thought process of the ‘wandering’ mind

v. Single palmar crease

vi. Papillary whorls

vii. Finger length tendencies

viii. Finger-Area of the brain connection                  



i. Using kinesthetic awareness the quieten the mind

ii. Vagus nerve (Touchpoint)



no external links 

no images 




no videos


external links: 

i. Structural Reflexology

ii. Pelvis-jaw connection

iii. Working on the jaw reflex to help prepare the pelvis for  labour

iv. Link to video for reflex sciatica routine

images & guides: 

i. Leg muscles.

ii. The A frame of the skeleton





i. Kinetic chains starting in the feet

ii. Technique for inverted foot


external links: 

i.Orthopedic reflexology 

ii. Balancing touch anatomical system charts

ii. The Stone Institute charts

images & guides: 

i. The Stone Institute anatomical system charts

ii. The muscles of the trunk

iii. Pelvic rotation

iv. The three arches of the feet

v. Three types of medial latitudinal arches

vi. The abductor hallucis muscle at medial edge of foot

vii. Classic spinal curvatures in body                   


i. Stretch for tight lower back reflexes

ii. Pelvic floor working technique

iii. Metatarsal stretch technique

iv. Plantar fasciitis foot massage


external links:

i. Morton’s neuroma 



images & guides: 

i. X-Ray of heel wearing and non heel wearing feet skeletons

ii. Metatarsal joints & skeleton of shoulder girdle & neck area

iii. Rotation, tilt, and flexion of the skull




i. Hallux twist technique

ii. Neck reflex stretch technique


external links: 

i. Kevin & Barbara Kunz 

ii. Wikipedia on proprioception (kinesthesia)

ii. Facebook page for Chris Stormer (reading the spiritual energy on the feet)

images & guides: 

i. Common toe deformities

ii. Emotional connections of each toe






i. Technique for toes dorsiflexing

ii. Kevin Kunz video for longer second toe

iii. Brazilian toe technique


external links: 

i. Dr. Carol Samuels – Nerve Reflexology

ii. A.R.T. Anthony Porter

iii. Precision reflexology

iv. Craniosacral Reflexology

v. Mauricio Kruchik foot reading book

vi. Foot glyphology – combining sclerology and iridology with the lines on the feet

vi. Multiple glyphology assessments – blog

vii. Dermatoglyphics/Chirology – the scientific analysis 

of lines on the hands


images & guides: 

i. ‘Aristotle’ quote about lines on the feet

ii. Nerve reflexes leaving the spine chart

iii. Lobes of the brain





i. Stretching out the Achilles tendon technique



external links: 

i. Chronic inflammation

ii. Adrenal gland & inflammation

iii. Bilirubin

iv. Acrocyanosis

v. Purpura

vi. Bruising and medical conditions

images & guides: 

i. Section on reading COVID-19 on the feet.

ii. Emotional connections of each toe






i. Technique for toe separation

ii. Kevin Kunz video for longer second toe

iii. Brazilian toe technique


external links: 

i. Essential Fatty Acids 

ii. Enzyme supplements

ii. Scleroderma

v. Excessive thickening of the skin

v. The cerebellum

vi. Candida bacteria

vii. Psoriasis, Eczema, Shingles, Keloid scars

images & guides: 

i. Lymphatic system in the body

ii. Emotional connections of each toe

iii. Spinal vertebrae and the nerves leaving from them

iv. Working in the presence of skin conditions





i. Technique for hallux twist


external links: 

i. Medical conditions affecting underlying tissue

ii. Free counselling training courses

iii. Lymphodema

iv. RLD reflex lymph drainage method

v. Rebounding – mini trampolines

vi. Hyperthyroidism – blue swelling

vii. Symptoms of lipodema

viii. Instagram link to lipodema & reflexology specialist

ix. Piezogenic papules (small round swellings at ankle)

x. HPA: hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal axis

xi. Connection beteen asthma & sinuses

xii. Connection between brain temperature & sinnuses

xiii. Irritable Bladder Condition

xiii. Jeni Tribe, Maternity reflexology

xiv. Benefits of foot massage/reflexology for gout

xv. Ganglion cysts, Plantar fibroma

xvi. Karen Windsor – reflexology & lipodema

images & guides: 

i. Emotional connections to areas of the body

ii. Area where lymph accumulates between tibia & fibula at the ankle

iii.Tightness in large latituinal tendon of foot.




i. Link to Touchpoint video for the colon

ii. Technique for congested colon



external links

i. Melanocytes 

ii. Types of moles

iii. Connection between neurons & melanocytes

iv. Inge Dougan’s book on reflexology & meridians

v. Chi Medics

vi. Genetics and the emotions – study

vi. Genetics and anxiety

viii. Trigeminal neuralgia

ix. Vitamins and the nervous system

images & guides:

i. Changes in cancerous moles

ii. Kidney & Bladder meridians in the feet

iii. Emotional centres in the body

iv. Conception mark on the foot






i. Technique for linking freckles



external links: 

i.   Peripheral vascular disease & symptoms

ii.  The kidneys and blood pressure

iii. Trial: Reflexology for HBP

iv. Low blood pressure

v.  Deep vein thrombosis

vi. Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI)

vii. Phlebitis

ix. Hemosiderin & Petechiae

images & guides: 

i.  Similarities between the dorsal blood vessels and those in the body

ii. Signs of CVI in the feet & ankles

iii.Venousflexor pump in the foot

iv. Kidney meridian point 1




i. Diaphragm rocking and foot pumping techniques



external links: 

i.   Biotin

ii.  Vegan & vegetarian nutrition websites

iii. Lynne Booth VRT

iv. Connection between nails & hair

v.  Traditional Chinese medicine and nails

vi. Nail varnish colours & personality, mood.

vii. Analysis of the personality through nail shape


images & guides: 

i.  Liver point for low iron





i. Nail rubbing



external links: 

i.   Traditional Chinese Medicine and reflexology

ii.  Ayurvedic Medicine and reflexology

iii. Four Element Medicine and reflexology

iv. Left-Right brain lobe function

v.  Left-Right brain lobe connectivity

vi. Limbic reflexology

vii. Neurophysiology of the chakras

viii. Pauline Willis Reflexology & colour therapy

ix. Five horizontal zones

x. Yin/Yang & the two lobes of the brain

images & guides: 

i. The two lobes of the brain

ii. Decussation of the nerves from brain to body 

iii. Chakra/nerve plexus placements on spine and foot

iv. The transverse zones

v. Yin/Yang





i. Balancing techniques (inc. nerve plexuses/chakras)

ii. Ted talk on left-right brain lobe function



external links: 

i.   Butyenko breathing


images & guides: 






i. Breathing technique



remaining chapters to follow:  fertility & pregnancy, chinese meridians, foot assessments, other ways of foot reading, the future of foot reading